Normal Anatomy of the Hip joint
The thigh bone, femur, and the pelvis, acetabulum, join to form the hip joint. The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint. The “ball” is the head of the femur, or thigh bone, and the “socket” is the cup shaped acetabulum.
Femoro Acetabular Impingement (FAI)
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition where there is too much friction in the hip joint from bony irregularities causing pain and decreased range of hip motion. The femoral head and acetabulum rub against each other creating damage and pain to the hip joint. The damage can occur to the articular cartilage (the smooth white surface of the ball or socket) or the labral tissue (the lining of the edge of the socket) during normal movement of the hip. The articular cartilage or labral tissue can fray or tear after repeated friction. Over time, more cartilage and labrum is lost until eventually the femur bone and acetabulum bone impact on one other. Bone on bone friction is commonly referred to as Osteoarthritis.
Hip fracture is a break that occurs near the hip in the upper part of the femur or thigh bone. The thigh bone has two bony processes on the upper part - the greater and lesser trochanters. The lesser trochanter projects from the base of the femoral neck on the back of the thigh bone. Hip fractures can occur either due to a break in the femoral neck, in the area between the greater and lesser trochanter or below the lesser trochanter.
Total Hip Replacement (THR)
The most common need for a hip replacement is osteoarthritis. Hip joint osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease resulting in wearing away of the lubricating cartilage of the hip joint. This causes the bones of this hip joint to rub together, which produces painful symptoms in the groin, decreased motion of the hip, and pain with walking and activity. Symptoms of arthritis tend to worsen as the degeneration progresses. A total hip replacement is a treatment option for patients with end stage osteoarthritis of the hip joint, and pain affecting their activities of daily living and quality of life.
Mako Total Hip Replacements
The MAKO total hip replacement is supported by the RIO Robotic Arm Interactive Orthopedic System. The RIO robotic arm provides Dr. Durkin with a patient-specific 3-D model of the hip joint that allows him to pre-plan a hip replacement. A patient is required to obtain a special CT scan of the hip prior to surgery, which also contributes in creating an individual surgical plan. During the procedure, real-time data assists Dr. Durkin in preparing the joint, and placing the implants in the desired orientation with more accuracy.
Non-Operative Treatments for Osteoarthritis
There are many non-operative treatments that can be considered before a patient undergoes a joint replacement surgery. Dr. Durkin likes to exhaust conservative measures before performing surgery on a patient. Once conservative measures fail the patient would be a candidate for a joint replacement.